ENGINEERING DATA
[anida technologies logo]

Your total engineering solution partner.

Engineering Data


Table of Contents

Select from list below:

Abbreviations
Dictionary
TLA (Three Letter Acronyms)
Drill Sizes
Tap Sizes
Screw Sizes
Ohm's Law
Resistor Color Code
Wire Gage
Semiconductor Package Sizes
Connector Sizes
Units
Hardness Scales
Areas and Volumes
Trigonometry
Statistics
Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
Material Properties
Stress Calculations
Gears and Pulleys
Back to anida technologies Main Page

Abbreviations

  • a - acceleration
  • abbr - abbreviation
  • acct - account
  • alt - alternate
  • Amp - ampere
  • amt - amount
  • anon - anonymous
  • approx - approximately
  • attn : attention
  • aux : auxilliary
  • dup - duplicate
  • ea - each
  • esp - especially
  • Hz - Hertz
  • k - kilobyte
  • kHz - kilohertz
  • MB - Megabyte
  • MHz - Megahertz
  • Modem - Modulator - demodulator
  • usu - usually

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Dictionary

  • Acme - Screw thread form.
  • Adiabatic - Heat flow is zero.
  • Alloy - Two or more metals combined to form a new metal.
  • Anode - Positive terminal of diode.
  • Anodize - Put aluminum into an acid bath to make it form a very hard aluminum oxide layer.
  • Archie - Internet searcher program that use anonymous ftp.
  • Archimede's principle - Fluid exerts an upward force on body equal to body weight.
  • Bearing - Any part that bears up, or supports, another (usually a rotating) part - also is a component that uses balls in a track to ease motion.
  • Bernoulli's equation - Change in pressure is proportional to channge in kinetic and potential energy.
  • Bevel - Surface slanted to another surface.
  • Bolt Circle - Circular center line for locating holes about a common center point
  • Boss - Raised surface of a circular outline.
  • Brass - Alloy of copper and zinc or copper with zinc and lead.
  • Braze - To join two pieces of metal by using a hard solder like brass or zinc.
  • Bronze - Alloy of copper and tin.
  • Bulk modulus - reciprocal of compressibility.
  • Burr - Rough or jagged edge caused by the fabrication process (usual drawing note says "Remove sharp edges").
  • Bushing - Hollow cylindrical sleeve used as a bearing or drill guide.
  • Cam - Machine part mounted on a revolving shaft to change rotary to linear motion.
  • Carnot - French engineer, Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot
  • Carnot's first proposition - No irreversible engine can be more efficient than a reversible engine at the same heat reservoirs.
  • Carnot's second proposition - All carnot engines operating at same reservoirs have the same efficiency.
  • Casting - Molten metal into a mold (AKA die casting).
  • Cathode - Negative terminal of diode.
  • Chamfer - Edge that has a bevel.
  • Clausius statement - No device can cycle with only heat from cool to hot body.
  • Coil - Iron core with magentic wire wound around it, always in the stator of a step motor.
  • Collector - Transistor terminal.
  • Commutation - Progression of phases of current in the coils of a motor.
  • Counterbore - Enlarged end of hole to some depth.
  • Countersink - Conical space at the end of a hole.
  • Coupling - Mechanical attachment of a load to the motor.
  • Coupling Ratio - Ratio of motor rotations to load rotations (usually greater than one for gearing "down" the load).
  • Darlington - Dual transistors.
  • Degree of Freedom - Coordinate required to describe motion.
  • Density - Mass of substance per unit volume.
  • Die - Cuts external threads of a screw and can also be a punching tool.
  • Diode - Electrical device that allows current to flow in only one direction.
  • Dowel - Cylindrical-shaped pin used for fastening parts together.
  • Draft - Tapered sides on a part to allow it to be easily removed from mold.
  • Drive, Bipolar - Voltage source with positive and negative voltages (4 wires out of step motor per stack).
  • Drive, Unipolar - Voltage source with only one polarity of voltage (6 wires out of step motor per stack).
  • Euler viewpoint - Fixed observer.
  • Extensive property - dependent on mass.
  • Fillet - Rounded in corner between two surfaces.
  • Firewall - Software protection scheme that limits the data packets that pass from inside and outside your intranet.
  • First kind of perpetual motion machine - Violates first law of thermodynamics, creates mass and/or energy from nothing.
  • First law of thermodynamics - Cyclic integral of heat is proportional to cyclic integral of work.
  • Fit - Tightness or looseness between meeting parts (interference or slip).
  • Fixture - Device used for holding a workpiece.
  • Flange - Extension from a surface.
  • Fluid - Material that cannot support static shear and exhibits surface tension effects.
  • Flyback Diode - Allows circuit path for current in coils to quickly discharge (also has a resistor), also known as a flywheel diode.
  • Flywheel Diode - Allows circuit path for current in coils to quickly discharge (also has a resistor), also known as a flyback diode.
  • Forced Vibrations - Occur when periodic forces outside the system are present.
  • Free Vibrations - Occur when only internal system forces are present (weight, springs, elastic members, etc.).
  • Froude number - Ratio of inertia to gravity force, square of velocity over gravity times height.
  • Fugacity - "pseudopressure" - fugacity can replace pressure in the ideal gas equations for real gases.
  • Fusion line - Solid to liquid interface.
  • Gage - Device for determining whether a specified dimension on an object is within specified limits (also known as "go-no go").
  • Gas Density - Pressure over gas constant times temperature.
  • Gear Ratio - Ratio of motor rotations to load rotations (usually greater than one for gearing "down" the load).
  • Gopher - Internet navigator that is menu based.
  • Grashof number - Ratio of bouyancy to viscous forces.
  • Handshaking - Control signals used in communication.
  • Heat - Form of energy across boundary of system due to a temperature differential.
  • Hydraulic diameter - Four times the area, divided by the wetted perimeter.
  • Inequality of Clausius - Cyclic integral of heat over temperature is always less than zero.
  • Inertia Match - Rotary load inertia to motor rotary inertia (very small is no damping, very large is uncontrollable).
  • Intensive property : Independent of mass.
  • Interactive - Computer input and output using sounds, graphics, and motion.
  • Internet - International network of smaller networks.
  • Isochoric - Constant volume, n=infinity for polytropic process.
  • Isoentropic - Constant entropy, n=k for polytropic process.
  • Isomer - Same number of carbon and hydrogen atoms but different structure.
  • Isothermal - Constant temperature, N=1 for polytropic process.
  • Jig - Either a guide for a cutting tool or a fixture.
  • Kelvin-Plank statement - No single reservoir heat exchange can operate a cycle.
  • Keyway - Groove or slot in a shaft or hub into which a key is placed.
  • Knurl - Series of shallow cuts to roughen a cylindrical surface so that it can be more easily turned by hand.
  • Langrange viewpoint - Observer moving with substance.
  • Lug - An "ear" forming a part of and extending from a part.
  • Maxwell equations - du=Tds-Pdv , dh=Tds+vdP , da=-Pdv-sdT (Helmhotlz) , dg=vdP-sdT (Gibbs)
  • Mehanical Vibration - Mechanical system with mass and elasticity with repeating definite time interval.
  • Microprocessor - Single integrated circuit chip that has a central processing unit and associated devices.
  • Mill - To machine a part on a milling machine using a rotating toothed cutter - can be an end, ball, or other shape.
  • Miter - 45 degree bevel.
  • Modulus of Elasticity - Symbol can be E or Y - Analogous to a spring constant - Slope of stress versus strain curve. Also known as Young's Modulus.
  • Moment of Inertia - Mathematical construct that allows the geometrical shape to indicate strength.
  • Motherboard - Computer's main board that contains the microprocessor and memory.
  • Natural Frequency - Frequency of system experiencing free vibrations.
  • Normal shock - Extremely rapid and adrupt change of state that is in a plane normal to flow direction.
  • Nusselt number - Temperature gradient at wall over overall temperature difference.
  • Pascal's law - Pressure at any point in a fluid at rest or motion is independent of direction so long as shearing forces are not present.
  • Passivation - Make a metal surface inert (usually stainless steels).
  • Phase - Iron core with magentic wire wound around it, always in the stator of a step motor.
  • Plastic deformation - Non-recoverable deflections (stresses beyond yield).
  • Plate - To electrochemically coat a metal object with another metal.
  • Poiseuille's Law - Volume rate of flow is proportional to pressure and inversely to viscosity.
  • Poisson's Ratio - Ratio of longitudinal and transverse deflections.
  • Polytropic process - Gas undergoes reversible process with heat tranfer, PV to the power of n is a constant with constant enthalpy.
  • Power - Time rate of doing work.
  • Prandtl's number - Thermal diffusivity over kinematic diffusivity, used in heat transfer involving fluid flow.
  • Punch - To pierce thin material by pressing a tool through it.
  • Rayleigh number - PrGr or Prandtl's number times Grashof's number.
  • Ream - To make a hole the exact size by finishing with a rotating, fluted cutting tool.
  • Regenerative cycle - Stacks Rankine cycles on each other, approaches Carnot cycle efficiency.
  • Resolution, Speed - In step motor applications, it is the increment step rate for one controller clock cycle increase or decrease.
  • Resolution, Step - Increment of load caused by one motor step in a step motor(Can be degrees/step or inches per step).
  • Resonance - Occurs when forced vibration frequency approaches or coincides with natural frequency.
  • Reversible process - Once having taken place can be reversed with no change in system or surroundings.
  • Reynolds number - Ratio of inertia to viscous forces, velocity times characteristic length over viscosity.
  • Rigid body - Combination of particles that remain at fixed distances from one another, i.e., no internal deformation occurs when forces are applied.
  • Roll pin - Hollow circular piece of steel.
  • Rotor - Rotational part of motor.
  • Safety Factor - Ratio of material's yield (or ultimate) stress to the highest calculated stress.
  • Second kind perpetual motion machine - Violates 2nd law, only one heat reservoir.
  • Seven reasons for irreversibility - Friction, unrestrained expansion, finite temperature heat transfer, mixing, combustion, hysteresis, and i squared R losses.
  • Shear - To cut material between two blades (not unlike a pair of sissors).
  • Shear Modulus - Materials resistance to shear.
  • Shim - Thin plate of material used between two surfaces to adjust the distance between them.
  • Slewing - Changing step motor coil phases at a constant rate where the rotor does not come to rest between pulses, at this speed the external torque is between the pull-in and pull-out torques of the motor.
  • Specific Gravity - Ratio of material density to that of water.
  • Specific Volume - Volume per unit mass.
  • Speed of Sound for Fluid - Square index of partial of pressure with respect to density.
  • Speed of Sound for Ideal Gas: Square index of kRT.
  • Spline - Long keyway (or set of keyways).
  • Start/Stop Motion - Changing motor coil phases at any rate where the rotor comes to rest between pulses, at this speed the external torque is less than the pull-in torque.
  • Stator - Stationary part of motor.
  • Stefan-Boltzmann-Law - Radiation energy is propotional to area and temperature to the power of 4.
  • Step Angle - Rotation of step motor caused by one full phase change (typical angles are 0.9 for small hybrids(400 steps/rev), 1.8 for hybrids (200 steps/rev), 7.5 for PM "tin cans"(48 steps/rev),15 for PM "tin cans"(24 steps/rev)).
  • Step Motor, Hybrid - Uses features of PM and VR step motors (has detents).
  • Step Motor, Permanent Magnet (PM) - Rotor is a permanent magnet (has detents).
  • Step Motor, Variable Reluctance (VR) - Rotor is a soft iron core (audibly noisy).
  • Stepping, Full - Step motor control where all pulses are maximum polarity and only one pole on at a time.
  • Stepping, Half - Step motor control where two poles on to create a medium stopping point.
  • Stepping, Micro - Step motor control where multiple poles on at once with varying voltages to create a sinusoidal wave.
  • Stereolithography Apparatus - Device that produces mechanical parts through a process where a laser is shot through a polymer bath.
  • Stoke's Law - Force on a sphere is proportional to viscosity and radius and velocity.
  • Stokes Number : Ratio of pressure to viscous forces, change in pressure times characteristic length over viscosity times velocity.
  • Strain - Dimensional changes resulting from stress.
  • Streamline - Curve whose tangent at every point is the direction of fluid flow.
  • Stress - Force over an area (units of pressure).
  • Sublimation line - Solid to vapor interface.
  • Switching Angle - In step motors, it is the electrical current vector at which the next phase is energized (used for acceleration and deceleration ramp tables).
  • Synchronization - In step motors it is where the stator coils switching with rotor turning in correct sequence.
  • Synchronization, Loss of - In step motors it is where a step is missed.
  • Synchronization, Reverse - In step motors it is where the rotor rotates in reverse sequence at some higher speed but with practically no torque.
  • Tap - To cut threads in a hole.
  • Temper - Reduce the brittleness in hardened materials (usually metals) by heating.
  • Thermal Efficiency - Net work over heat transfer from/to high reservoir.
  • Thermodynamics - Science of energy and entropy.
  • Third kind perpetual motion machine - No friction , runs indefinitely but yields no work.
  • Third law of thermodynamics - Entropy of a perfect crystal is zero at zero temperature.
  • Tolerance - Specific allowance for variation from a given dimension.
  • Torque Utilization Factor - In step motors it is the portion of pull-out torque used for application (usually 0.5).
  • Torque, Detent - In step motors it is the magnetic rotor teeth aligning to stator teeth.
  • Torque, Holding - Allowable torque for no speed operation.
  • Torque, Pull-in - Motor torque at a certain speed that will achieve synchronization.
  • Torque, Pull-out - External torque at which speed will cause a loss of syncronization.
  • Torque, Residual - In step motors it is the magnetic rotor teeth aligning to stator teeth.
  • Torricelli - Inventor of the mercury barometer.
  • Transient Vibrations - decay with time (free vibrations are transient, forced vibrations are not transient).
  • Triple Point - Solid-vapor-liquid intersection.
  • Ultimate Stress - Highest stress before failure occurs.
  • Vapor power cycle losses - Piping,turbine,pump, and condensor losses
  • Vaporization line - liquid to vapor interface.
  • Viscosity, Absolute - Shear stress per shear rate.
  • Viscosity, Kinematic - Absolute viscosity per density.
  • Vorticity - Del cross Velocity, vorticity is zero for irrotational flows.
  • Washer - Ring of metal used to form a seat for a bolt and nut.
  • Weld - To join pieces of metal by heat or pressure.
  • Winding - Iron core with magentic wire wound around it, always in the stator of a step motor.
  • Work - Force acting through a distance.
  • Yield Stress - Highest stress before plastic (nonrecoverable) deformation occurs (end of linear stress region).
  • Young's Modulus - Symbol can be E or Y - Analogous to a spring constant - Slope of stress versus strain curve. Also known as Modulus of Elasticity.
  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics:when two bodies have equality with a third, they have equality of temperature.

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    TLA (Three Letter Acronyms) and Some 2 and 4 Letter Ones as Well

  • AAAS - American Association for the Advancement of Science
  • ABD - all but dissertation
  • AC - air conditioner, air conditioning, or alternating current
  • A/D - Analog / Digital
  • AEC - Atomic Energy Commision
  • aka - also known as
  • AI - Artificial Intelligence
  • AM - amplitude modulation
  • ANSI - American National Standards Institute
  • a/o - account of
  • APT - Automatically Programmed Tools
  • ATE - Automated Test Equipment
  • ATPG - Automatic Test Pattern Generator
  • AQ - as quoted
  • ARPANET - Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
  • ASAP - as soon as possible
  • ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
  • ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode or Automated Teller Machine
  • BBS - Bulletin Board System
  • bc - blind copy
  • BIOS - Basic Input/Output System
  • bps - bits per second
  • BGA - Ball Grid Array
  • BIB - Burn-in Board
  • BIST - Built-in Self Test
  • BS - bull shit
  • btu - British Thermal Unit
  • CAD/CAM - Computer Aided Design/ Computer Aided Manufacturing
  • cc - carbon copy, cubic centimeter, or closed captioned
  • CD-I - Compact Disc - Interactive
  • CD-ROM - Compact Disc - Read Only Memory
  • cg - center of gravity
  • CIE - Computer Integrated Enterprise
  • CIM - Computer Integrated Manufacturing
  • CISC - Complex Instruction Set Computing
  • c/o - in care of
  • COD - cash on delivery
  • CPU - Central Processing Unit
  • CSP - Chip Scale Packaging
  • CTE - Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
  • D/A - Digital / Analog
  • D & C - dilation and curettage
  • DC - de capo (Italian from the beginning), District of Columbia, or direct current
  • DFN - Dual Flat Nolead Package
  • DFT - Design for test
  • DIP - Dual In-line Package
  • DPI - Dots Per Inch
  • DPM - Defects per million
  • DOA - dead on arrival
  • DOB - date of birth
  • DS - dal segno (Italian from the sign)
  • DTP - Desktop Publishing
  • DTUL - Deflected Temperature Under Load
  • DUT - Device Under Test
  • DVI - Digital Video Interactive
  • EISA - Extended International Standard Architecture
  • FAO - Finished All Over (obsolete term)
  • FOB - free on board
  • FTP - File Transfer Protocol
  • FUBAR - fouled up beyond all recognition or fucked up beyond all recognition
  • GPS - Global Positioning System
  • GRAS - generally regarded as safe
  • GUI - Graphical User Interface
  • HDI - High Density Interconnect
  • HDTV - High-definition Television
  • HPGL - Hewlett Packard Graphics Language
  • HTML - Hyper Text Markup Language
  • HTTP - Hyper Text Transfer Protocol
  • I/O - Input / Output
  • IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics
  • IGES - Initial Graphics Exchange Standard
  • IOU - I owe you
  • IP = Intellectual Property or Internet Protocol
  • IRC - Internet Relay Chat
  • IRQ - Interrupt Request Line
  • ISA - Industry Standard Architecture
  • JIS - Japanese Industrial Standard
  • JIT - Just In Time
  • JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
  • kbps - kilobits per second
  • KISS - keep it simple stupid
  • LAN - Local Area Network
  • LBIST - Logic Built-in Self Test
  • LCC - Leadless Chip Carrier
  • LCD - Liquid Crystal Display
  • LCP - Liquid Crystal Polymer
  • LED - Light Emitting Diode
  • LTCC - Low-temperature cofired ceramics
  • MAN - Metropolitan Area Network
  • MBIST - Memory Built-in Self Test
  • MCC - Microchip Carrier
  • MCM - Multichip Modules
  • MEMS - Microelectromechanical System
  • MHD - magnetohydrodynamics
  • MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface
  • MLF - Micro Lead Frame
  • MPC - Multimedia Personal Computer
  • MPEG - Motion Picture Experts Group
  • MRP-I - Material's Requirement Planning
  • MRP-II - Manufacturing Resources Planning
  • MSRP - Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price
  • MYOB - mind your own business
  • NA - not apllicable
  • NIMBY - not in my back yard
  • NTSC - National Television System Committee
  • o/a - on or about
  • obo - or best offer
  • OCR - Optical Character Recognition
  • OLE - Object Linking and Embedding
  • OS - Operating System
  • PAYE - pay as you enter
  • PBX - Private Branch Exchange
  • PCB - Printed Circuit Board
  • PCL - Printer Control Language
  • PCMCIA - Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
  • PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
  • PDQ - Pretty Darn Quick or Pretty Damn Quick
  • PGA - Pin Grid Array
  • pH - pouvoir hydrogene French for Hydrogen power
  • PIM - Personal Information Manager
  • PLCC - Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier
  • PMS - Pantone Matching System
  • PPP - Point to Point Protocol
  • PWB - Printed Wiring Board
  • QFP - Quad Flat Package
  • QFN - Quad Flat No Lead Package
  • RAM - Random Access Memory
  • RF - Radio Frequency
  • RGB - Red Green Blue (colors in a TV screen)
  • RISC - Reduced Instruction Set Computing
  • ROM - Read Only Memory
  • SCSI - Small Computer Systems Interface
  • SDK - Software Development Kit
  • SIG - Special Interest Group
  • SIMM - Single Inline Memory Module
  • SIP - Single In-line Package
  • SISO - Simulation Interoperability Standards Organization
  • SLA - Stereolithography Apparatus
  • SLIP - Serial Line Internet Protocol
  • SMTP - Simple Mail Transport Protocol
  • SNAFU- Situation Normal, All Fouled Up or Situation Normal, All Fucked Up
  • SOB - son of a bitch
  • SOC - System on chip
  • SOHO - Small Office/Home Office
  • SOIC - Small Outline Integrated Circuit
  • SOL - Short on luck or shit out of luck
  • SOP - Small Outline Package or system on package
  • SPC - Statistical Process Control
  • SS - Stainless Steel
  • SVGA - Super VGA
  • SWOT - Strengths - Weaknesses - Opportunities - Threats
  • T & A - tits and ass
  • taser - tele-active shock electronic repulsion
  • TBA - to be announced
  • TCPIP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
  • TGIF - Thank God It's Friday
  • TIFF - Tagged Image File Format (graphics format)
  • tip - to insure promptness (archaic)
  • TLC - tender loving care
  • TSR - Terminate and Stay Ready
  • TSOP - Thin Small Outline Package
  • UPS - Uninteruptible Power Supply
  • UUCP - Unix to Unix Copy Protocol
  • VAR - Value Added Reseller
  • VC - Venture Capitalist
  • VCSEL - Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser
  • VDSM - Very Deep Sub-Micron
  • VESA - Video Eelctronics Standards Association
  • VGA - Video Graphics Adaptor
  • VR - Virtual Reality
  • WAN - Wide-area network
  • w/o - without
  • WWW - World Wide Web
  • WYSIWYG - What You See Is What You Get

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Drill Sizes

  • #80 = .0135 | #60 = .0400 | #40 = .0980 | #20 = .1610
  • #79 = .0145 | #59 = .0410 | #39 = .0995 | #19 = .1660
  • #78 = .0160 | #58 = .0420 | #38 = .1015 | #18 = .1695
  • #77 = .0180 | #57 = .0430 | #37 = .1040 | #17 = .1730
  • #76 = .0200 | #56 = .0465 | #36 = .1065 | #16 = .1770
  • #75 = .0210 | #55 = .0520 | #35 = .1100 | #15 = .1800
  • #74 = .0225 | #54 = .0550 | #34 = .1110 | #14 = .1820
  • #73 = .0240 | #53 = .0595 | #33 = .1130 | #13 = .1850
  • #72 = .0250 | #52 = .0635 | #32 = .1160 | #12 = .1890
  • #71 = .0260 | #51 = .0670 | #31 = .1200 | #11 = .1910
  • #70 = .0280 | #50 = .0700 | #30 = .1285 | #10 = .1935
  • #69 = .0292 | #49 = .0730 | #29 = .1360 | # 9 = .1960
  • #68 = .0310 | #48 = .0760 | #28 = .1405 | # 8 = .1990
  • #67 = .0320 | #47 = .0785 | #27 = .1440 | # 7 = .2010
  • #66 = .0330 | #46 = .0810 | #26 = .1470 | # 6 = .2040
  • #65 = .0350 | #45 = .0820 | #25 = .1495 | # 5 = .2055
  • #64 = .0360 | #44 = .0860 | #24 = .1520 | # 4 = .2090
  • #63 = .0370 | #43 = .0890 | #23 = .1540 | # 3 = .2130
  • #62 = .0380 | #42 = .0935 | #22 = .1570 | # 2 = .2210
  • #61 = .0390 | #41 = .0960 | #21 = .1590 | # 1 = .2280

    Lettered Drills

    Letter

    Diameter, inches

    Letter

    Diamter, inches

    Letter

    Diameter, inches

    Letter

    Diameter, inches

    A.234H.266 O.316V.377
    B.238I.272 P.323W.386
    C229.4J.277 Q.332X.397
    D.246K.281 R.339Y.404
    E.250L.290 S.348Z.413
    F.257M.295 T.358
    G.261N.302 U.368

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Tap Sizes

    Inch Sizes - National Coarse
    Inch Sizes - National Fine
    Inch Sizes - Taper Pipe
    Inch Sizes - Straight Pipe
    Metric Sizes - Coarse
    Metric Sizes - Fine
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Inch Sizes - National Coarse

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    #0-803/64" #1-64#53 #2-56#51
    #3-485/64" #4-40#43 #5-40#39
    #6-32#36 #8-32#29 #10-24#25
    #12-24#17 #1/4-20#7 #5/16-18#F
    #3/8-165/16" #7/16-14#U #1/2-1327/64"
    #9/16-1231/64" #5/8-1117/32" #3/4-1021/32"
    #7/8-949/64" #1-87/8" #1 1/8-763/64"
    #1 1/4-71 7/64" #1 1/2-61 11/32" #1 3/4-51 35/64"
    #2 -4 1/21 25/32"

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Inch Sizes - National Fine

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    #1-72#53 #2-64#50 #3-56#46
    #4-48#42 #5-44#37 #6-40#33
    #8-36#29 #10-32#21 #12-28#15
    #1/4-28#3 #5/16-24#I #3/8-24#Q
    #7/16-20#W #1/2-2029/64" #9/16-1833/64"
    #5/8-1837/64" #3/4-1611/16" #7/8-1413/16"
    #1-1415/16" #1 1/8 - 121 3/16" #1 1/4 - 121 11/64"
    #1 1/2 - 121 27/64" #1 3/4 - 121 43/64" #2 - 121 59/64"

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Taper Pipe Sizes - NPT

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    #1/8-27#R #1/4-187/16" #3/8-1837/64"
    #1/2-1423/32" #3/4-1459/64" #1 -11 1/21 5/32"
    #1 1/4 - 11 1/21 1/2" #1 1/2 - 11 1/21 47/64" #2 - 11 1/22 7/32"
    #2 1/2-82 5/8 #3-83 1/4 #3 1/2-83 3/4
    #4-84 1/4"

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Straight Pipe Sizes - NPS

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    #1/8 - 27#S #1/4 - 1829/64" #3/8 - 1819/32"
    #1/2 - 1447/64" #3/4 - 1415/16" #1 - 11 1/21 3/16"
    #1 1/4 - 11 1/21 33/64" #1 1/2 - 11 1/21 3/4" #2 - 11 1/22 7/32"
    #2 1/2 - 82 21/32 #3 - 83 9/32 #3 1/2 - 83 25/32
    #4 - 84 9/32"

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Metric Coarse Sizes

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    M1 x .25.75 M1.1 x .25.85 M1.2 x .25.95
    M1.4 x .31.1 M1.6 x .351.25 M1.7 x .351.3
    M1.8 x .351.45 M2 x .41.6 M2.2 x .451.75
    M2.5 x .452.05 M3 x .52.5 M3.5 x .62.9
    M4 x .73.3 M4.5 x .753.7 M5 x .84.2
    M6 x 15 M7 x 16 M8 x 1.256.8
    M9 x 1.257.8 M10 x 1.58.5 M11 x 1.59.5
    M12 x 1.7510.2 M14 x 212 M16 x 214
    M18 x 2.515.5 M20 x 2.517.5 M22 x 2.519.5
    M24 x 321 M27 x 324 M30 x 3.526.5
    M33 x 3.529.5 M36 x 432 M39 x 435

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Metric Fine Sizes

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    Tap

    Drill

    M4 x .353.6 M4 x .53.5
    M5 x .54.5 M6 x .55.5 M6 x .755.25
    M7 x .756.25 M8 x .57 M8 x .757.25
    M8 x 17.5 M9 x 18 M10 x .759.25
    M10 x 19 M10 x 1.258.8 M11 x 110
    M12 x .7511.25 M12 x 111 M12 x 1.510.5
    M14 x 113 M14 x 1.2512.8 M14 x 1.512.5
    M16 x 115 M16 x 1.514.5 M18 x 117
    M18 x 216 M20 x 119 M20 x 1.518.5
    M20 x 218 M22 x 121 M22 x 1.520.5
    M22 x 220 M24 x 1.522.5 M24 x 222
    M26 x 1.524.5 M27 x 1.525.5 M27 x 225
    M28 x 1.526.5 M30 x 1.528.5 M30 x 228
    M33 x 231 M36 x 333 M39 x 336

    Back to Tap Menu
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Screw Sizes

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Ohm's Law

  • Voltage = E = Volts = I x R = W/I = Square index (W x R)
  • Current = I = Amperes = E/R = W/E = Square index (W/R)
  • Resistance = R = Ohms = E/I = E x E/W = W / (I x I)
  • Power = W = Watts = E x I = I x I x R = E x E/R

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Resistor Color Code

  • Step 1 - Write number that corresponds to first band.
  • Step 2 - Write number for next band.
  • Step 3 - Add as many zeros as the number of the color of the third band.
  • Step 4 - Tolerance. If fourth band is blank then value is +/-20%, if it is silver then +/-10%, and if it is gold then +/-5%.

    [Resistor Chart]

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Wire Gage Sizes

    Solid Bare Gage Wire

    GAGE NO

    DIAMETER, MILS

    AREA CIRCULAR MILS

    OHMS PER 1K FOOT AT 25 C

    0000 460.0 211,600 0.0509
    000409.6167,8000.0642
    00364.8133,1000.0811
    0324.8105,5000.102
    1289.383,6900.1264
    2257.666,3700.1593
    3229.452,6400.2009
    4204.341,7400.2533
    5181.933,1000.3195
    6162.026,2500.4028
    7144.320,8200.5080
    8128.516,5100.6405
    9114.413,0900.8077
    10101.910,3801.018
    1190.78,2341.26
    1280.86,5301.619
    1372.05,1782.003
    1464.04,1072.575
    1557.13,25703.184
    1650.82,5834.094
    1745102210.35
    1840102210.35
    1936102210.35
    2031.96102210.35
    2128102210.35
    2225102210.35
    2323102210.35
    2420102210.35
    2518102210.35
    2616102210.35
    2714102210.35
    2813102210.35
    2911102210.35
    3010.03100.5105.2
    328.063.2167.3
    346.339.7266.0
    36525.0423.0
    38415.7672.6
    403.1459.881069
    422.56.221701
    4423.912703
    461.62.464299
    481.21.556836
    5010.9710,870

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Semiconductor Package Sizes

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Connector Sizes

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Units

    Unit Conversions
    Unit Names
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Hardness Scales

    Comparison of Metal Hardness Scales

    Rockwell C

    Rockwell B

    Rockwell A

    15N

    30N

    Brinell

    Vickers

    Knoop

    Shore

    ~ Tensile (ksi)

    67 NA 85 93 83.5 NA 900 895 95 NA
    66 NA 84.5 92.5 83 NA 865 870 92 NA
    65 NA 83.9 92 82 739 832 846 91 NA
    64 NA 83.4 NA 81 722 800 822 88 NA
    63 NA 82.8 91.5 80 705 772 799 87 NA
    62 NA 82.3 91 79 688 746 776 85 NA
    61 NA 81.8 90.5 78.5 670 720 754 83 NA
    60 NA 81.2 90 77.5 654 697 732 81 NA
    59 NA 80.7 89.5 76.5 634 674 710 80 326
    58 NA 80.1 NA 75.5 615 653 690 78 315
    57 NA 79.6 89 75 595 633 670 76 305
    56 NA 79 88.5 74 577 613 650 75 295
    55 NA 78.5 88 73 560 595 630 74 287
    54 NA 78 87.5 72 543 577 612 72 278
    53 NA 77.4 87 71 525 560 594 71 269
    52 NA 76.8 86.5 70.5 512 544 576 69 262
    51 NA 76.3 86 69.5 496 528 558 68 253
    50 NA 75.9 85.5 68.5 481 513 542 67 245
    49 NA 75.2 85 67.5 469 498 526 66 239
    48 NA 74.7 84.5 66.5 455 484 510 64 232
    47 NA 74.1 84 66 443 471 495 63 225
    46 NA 73.6 83.5 65 432 458 480 62 219
    45 NA 73.1 83 64 421 446 466 60 212
    44 NA 72.5 82.5 63 409 434 452 58 206
    43 NA 72 NA NA 400 423 NA 57 201
    42 NA 71.5 81.5 61.5 390 412 426 56 196
    41 NA 70.9 NA NA 381 402 NA 55 191
    40 NA 70.5 80.5 59.5 371 392 402 54 186
    39 NA 69.9 NA NA 362 382 NA 52 181
    38 NA 69.4 79.5 57.5 353 372 380 51 176
    37 NA 68.9 NA NA 344 363 NA 50 172
    36 109 68.4 78.5 56 336 354 360 49 168
    35 108.5 67.9 NA NA 327 345 NA 48 163
    34 108 67.4 77 54 319 336 342 47 159
    33 107.5 66.8 NA NA 311 327 NA 46 154
    32 107 66.3 76 52 301 318 326 44 150
    31 106 65.8 NA NA 294 310 NA 43 146
    30 105.5 65.3 75 50.5 286 302 311 42 142
    29 104.5 64.7 NA NA 279 294 NA 41 138
    28 104 64.3 74 48.5 271 286 297 41 134
    27 103 63.8 NA NA 264 279 NA 40 131
    26 102.5 63.3 72.5 47 258 272 284 38 127
    25 101.5 62.8 NA NA 253 266 NA 38 124
    24 101 62.4 71.5 45 247 260 272 37 121
    23 100 62 NA NA 243 254 NA 36 118
    22 99 61.5 70.5 43 237 248 261 35 115
    21 98.5 61 NA NA 231 243 NA 35 113
    20 97.8 61.5 69.5 41.5 226 238 251 34 110

    Elastomers

    Comparison of Elastomer Hardness Scales

    A

    B

    C

    D

    O

    OO

    100 85 77 58 NA NA
    95 81 70 46 NA NA
    90 76 59 39 NA NA
    85 71 52 33 NA NA
    80 66 47 29 84 98
    75 62 42 25 79 97
    70 56 37 22 75 95
    65 51 32 19 72 94
    60 47 28 16 69 93
    55 42 24 14 65 91
    50 37 20 12 61 90
    45 32 17 10 57 88
    40 27 14 8 53 86
    35 22 12 7 48 83
    30 17 9 6 42 80
    25 12 NA NA 35 76
    20 6 NA NA 28 70
    15 NA NA NA 21 62
    10 NA NA NA 14 55
    5 NA NA NA 8 45

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Areas and Volumes

  • Rectangle - Area = l x w where l is the length of rectangle and w is the width of the rectangle
  • Cube - Surface Area = 6 x s x s and Volume = s x s x s where s is a single side's length.
  • Circle - Area = pi x r x r where r is the radius of the circle
  • Cylinder - Surface Area = pi x d x h and Volume = pi x r x r x h where r is radius, d is diameter, and h is height of cylinder.
  • Sphere - Surface Area = pi x d x d and Volume = pi x d x d x d / 6 where d is the diameter.
  • Cone - Surface Area = pi x r x s and Volume = pi x r x r x h / 3 where s = square index (r x r + h x h), r is the radius, h is the height.
  • Torus - Surface Area = pi x pi x D x d and Volume = pi x pi x D x d x d/4 where D is main diameter across toroid and d is the diameter of swept circle.
  • pi is approximately 3.1415963

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Trigonometry

    Right Triangles:
    
    sine (sin) of angle = opposite side / hypotenuse
    cosine (cos) of angle = adjacent side / hypotenuse
    tangent (tan) of angle = opposite side / adjacent side
    
    Radian = pi / 180 degrees
    
    
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Statistics

    Sigma          PPM
     1.00000       317312 
     1.03644       300000 
     1.28156       200000 
     1.50000       133614 
     1.64486       100000 
     1.69541        90000 
     1.75069        80000 
     1.81191        70000 
     1.88080        60000 
     1.95997        50000 
     2.00000        45501 
     2.05376        40000 
     2.17010        30000 
     2.32636        20000 
     2.50000        12420 
     2.57584        10000 
     2.61206         9000 
     2.65207         8000 
     2.69686         7000 
     2.74778         6000 
     2.80704         5000 
     2.87817         4000 
     2.96775         3000 
     3.00000         2700
     3.09023         2000 
     3.29054         1000 
     3.32007          900 
     3.35280          800 
     3.38958          700 
     3.43162          600 
     3.48076          500 
     3.50000          465 
     3.54008          400 
     3.61532          300 
     3.71903          200 
     3.89061          100 
     3.91610           90 
     3.94442           80 
     3.97630           70 
     4.00000           63 
     4.01282           60 
     4.05563           50 
     4.10750           40 
     4.17348           30 
     4.26490           20 
     4.41719           10 
     4.43990            9.0 
     4.46520            8.0 
     4.49369            7.0 
     4.50000            6.8 
     4.52641            6.0 
     4.56480            5.0 
     4.61140            4.0 
     4.67084            3.0 
     4.75344            2.0 
     4.89166            1.0 
     4.91235            0.90 
     4.93539            0.80 
     4.96137            0.70 
     4.99123            0.60 
     5.00000            0.57 
     5.02633            0.50 
     5.06897            0.40 
     5.12346            0.30 
     5.19936            0.20 
     5.32674            0.10
     5.50000            0.040 
     6.00000            0.002 
    
    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing

    [FOPRL Chart]

    [FOPRL Legend]

    [FOPRL 2009]

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Material Properties

    Metal Properties

    Matieral

    Young's Modulus, psi

    Mass Density, lb/in3

    Thermal Exp Coef, 1in/in/F

    Ultimate Tensile, psi

    Ultimate Compressive, psi

    Ultimate Shear, psi

    Thermal Conductivity, Btuin/hrft2F

    Specific Heat, Btu/lb/F

    Aluminum 356-T6 (Cast)1.05E+07NANA380002700030000NANA
    Aluminum 380 (Cast)NA0.098001.21E-0547000NA27000668.16NA
    Zinc Alloy #5 (Cast)NA0.242001.52E-05476008700038000754.80NA
    Kovar2.00E+070.302003.25E-0675000NANA120.00NA
    Alloy 422.10E+070.293002.57E-0682000NANA74.500.120
    Invar2.05E+070.291009.00E-0765000NANA72.600.123

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Plastic Properties

    Matieral

    Young's Modulus, psi

    Poisson's Ratio

    Shear Modulus, psi

    Mass Density, lb/in3

    Thermal Exp Coef, 1in/in/F

    Ultimate Tensile, psi

    Ultimate Compressive, psi

    Ultimate Shear, psi

    Thermal Conductivity, Btuin/hrft2F

    Specific Heat, Btu/lb/F

    Cycolac DH3800000.35140000.037883.90E-0513000NANANANA
    Cycolac GSM3200000.35120000.03752NA10700NANA1.22NA
    Cycolac KJB3200000.35120000.044015.50E-0510000NANANANA
    Delrin 100/500/9004100000.35NA0.051234.20E-0514100520095001.600.35
    Lexan 101/201340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051420012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 121/221340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051400012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 141/241340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051400012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 141L/241L340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051400012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 150340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051350012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 161/261340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051420012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 181/281340000NA1140000.043293.75E-051420012500100001.350.30
    Lexan 3412(20%GF)800000NA2030000.048781.49E-051900016000100001.470.28
    Lexan 3413(30%GF)1100000NA2600000.051811.21E-052300018000105001.500.27
    Lexan 3414(40%GF)1400000NA3190000.054959.30E-062700021000110001.530.25
    Lexan 500/503500000NA1470000.045051.79E-05150001400085001.410.29
    Lexan 920/940/950325000NA1140000.043293.80E-051320012500100001.350.30
    Lexan PPC4501294000NANA0.043295.10E-0513800NA98001.460.30
    Lexan PPC4701338000NANA0.043294.50E-0514100NA106001.430.30
    Noryl 731360000NANA0.038243.30E-0513500NANANANA
    Noryl GFN2750000NANA0.043652.00E-0518500NANANANA
    Noryl GFN31100000NANA0.045821.40E-0520000NANANANA
    Noryl HS1000425000NANA0.045093.00E-0514000NANANANA
    Noryl HS2000500000NANA0.044732.50E-0516000NANANANA
    Noryl N190325000NANA0.038964.00E-058200NANANANA
    Noryl N225345000NANA0.039323.80E-0511000NANANANA
    Noryl N300350000NANA0.038243.00E-0515100NANANANA
    Noryl SE1360000NANA0.038243.30E-0513500NANANANA
    Noryl SE100360000NANA0.043313.80E-0512800NANANANA
    Noryl SE1-GFN2750000NANA0.046902.00E-0518500NANANANA
    Noryl SE1-GFN31100000NANA0.049061.40E-0520000NANANANA
    Ultem 10004800000.44NA0.045823.10E-052200021900150000.85NA
    Ultem 10104800000.44NA0.045823.10E-052200021900150000.85NA
    Ultem 2100650000NANA0.048341.80E-052800022000130001.22NA
    Ultem 22009000000.40NA0.051231.40E-053000028700135001.43NA
    Ultem 23001300000NANA0.054471.10E-053300030700140001.56NA
    Ultem 240017000000.37NA0.058088.00E-06360003180015000NANA
    Ultem 40001300000NANA0.061339.00E-0616500194009000NANA
    Ultem 6000440000NANA0.046542.90E-05210002050015000NANA
    Ultem 6100670000NANA0.048701.80E-05280002130014000NANA
    Ultem 6200950000NANA0.051591.40E-05300002500014000NANA
    Ultem 6202550000NANA0.051232.50E-05210002050014000NANA
    Ultrason S1010 (PSU)380000NA1450000.044735.50E-0511600NANANANA
    Valox 310SEO380000NANA0.050004.40E-0514700145007700NANA
    Valox 325340000NANA0.046954.50E-0512000130007700NANA
    Valox 357300000NANA0.048085.10E-051200053006000NANA
    Valox 420 (30%GF)1100000NANA0.054951.40E-0527500180008900NANA
    Valox 420 SEO (30%GF)1100000NANA0.058141.40E-0527000180009000NANA
    Valox 508 (30%GF)1000000NANA0.054051.30E-0524500167008260NANA
    Valox 553 (30%GF)1000000NANA0.056821.20E-0528000195508940NANA
    Valox 701 (35%GMF)800000NANA0.057471.90E-0518000190008000NANA
    Valox 730 (35%GMF)900000NANA0.055561.70E-0516000110005900NANA
    Valox 735 (40%GMF)1000000NANA0.058141.40E-0520000146006800NANA
    Valox 780 (40%GMF)1500000NANA0.063691.40E-0524000200008000NANA
    Valox 815 (15%GF)650000NANA0.051282.50E-0520000218008900NANA
    Valox 830 (30%GF)1000000NANA0.053761.40E-0525000218008900NANA
    Valox 850 (15%GF)750000NANA0.054642.30E-0520000149707510NANA
    Valox 855 (15%GF)750000NANA0.055562.50E-0522000159707390NANA
    Valox 865 (30%GF)1100000NANA0.059521.20E-0526000196009000NANA
    Valox DR-48 (15%GF)730000NANA0.054951.10E-0521000150008000NANA

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Stress Calculations

  • E=2G(1+)
  • G=E/2(1+)
  • =(E-2G)/2G
  • For springs - Force = Spring constant times deflection or F=kx
  • For bending beams - F=(AE/L)x
  • For pure heat conduction - q=(-k/L)(T2-T1)
  • y = FL3/3EI or F=(3EI/L3)y , where y is the deflection of the beam, F is the force, L is the length of the beam, E is Young's Modulus, I is the moment of inertia, and I = wt3/12 , where w is the width, t is the thickness of the beam

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page


    Gears and Pulleys

    Back to Table of Contents
    Back to anida technologies Main Page

    Last updated 4/26/14.